English verbs have five basic forms:
the base form
- s form
past formand past participle formPast participles for regular verbs
are the same as their past forms
verbs, past and past participle forms may be different
The past participle is commonly used in 4 different cases:Case 1
As a part of the present and past perfect tenses
(both "regular" and continuous).
The non-continuous present perfect tense useshas
or have + the past participle
The present perfect continuous tense useshas
+ - ing
- He has taken a vacation. He has been taking a vacation.
To make one of the past forms for the modal verbs.These forms use
+ the past participle
- could have gone
- may have been
- should have known
- might have seen, etc.
As participial adjectives
(verb forms used as adjectives).
- We were bored / excited / interested.
- We were bored with / excited about / interested inthe movie.
Making the past form of infinitives
to + the base form
- to be - to have been
- to live - to have lived
- to go - to have gone
- to have - to have had